NEUROCLASTIC: “Information about the autism spectrum from autistic people”
We believe that if you are a parent, teacher, service provider, partner, or even autistic yourself, this guide will really make a difference in how you understand autism.
“This open access book marks the first historical overview of the autism rights branch of the neurodiversity movement, describing the activities and rationales of key leaders in their own words since it organized into a unique community in 1992. Sandwiched by editorial chapters that include critical analysis, the book contains 19 chapters by 21 authors about the forming of the autistic community and neurodiversity movement, progress in their influence on the broader autism community and field, and their possible threshold of the advocacy establishment.” Editor: Steven K. Kapp
“Neurodiversity is the diversity of human brains and minds, the infinite variation in neurocognitive functioning within our species. The Neurodiversity Paradigm is an emergent paradigm in which neurodiversity is understood to be a form of human diversity that is subject to the same social dynamics as other forms of diversity (including dynamics of power and oppression).”
Download a pdf copy: The Neurodiversity Paradigm
Subject Matter Articles
Finding the Right Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) For Your Autistic Child
Thinking Person’s Guide to Autism
8 Signs of a Respectful & Empathetic Therapist
Therapist Neurodiversity Collective
FREE COMMUNICATION RESOURCES FOR AUTISTIC CHILDREN
CHOOSING A THERAPIST
Psychotherapy Networker – In Consultation: Seeing Children through a Polyvagal Lens. By Mona Delahooke. January/February 2020
“…I came to appreciate the importance of understanding that all behaviors have meaning. Rather than focusing on eliminating them, we need to understand the adaptive purposes they serve for each child.”
The problem with behaviorism – There are better ways to work with behaviorally challenging children
“The evidence of long-term effectiveness is not available. On the contrary, after 22 years, our country’s schools continue to struggle with restraints, seclusion, suspensions and expulsions. In some cases, these statistics are increasing, even in schools where PBIS is in place. (The PBIS.org website cites the effectiveness of the PBIS framework and lists many references. However, a look at the references reveals that most are not recent, are limited in scope, and do not reflect research about long term outcomes of implementation of PBIS). “
How Teachers Can Take A More Compassionate Approach to Behaviors
“After decades of witnessing these patterns, it was when I studied brain and developmental science that I discovered how behavioral management makes teachers and parents focus on behaviors rather than their causes. Once I began taking a deeper look into what behaviors reveal about what a child needs from relationships and from the environment, I began to see better results. “
Autism and Behaviorism -New Research Adds to an Already Compelling Case Against ABA
“When a common practice isn’t necessary or useful even under presumably optimal conditions, it’s time to question whether that practice makes sense at all.”
ABA: Modern-Day Brainwashing, by Therapist Neurodiversity Collective
Behave OR Be Well: NEUROCLASTIC
5 Important Reasons Even “New ABA” is Problematic: Autistic Mama
Why I Left ABA: Socially Anxious Advocate
§482.13(b)(2) The patient or his or her representative (as allowed under State law) has the right to make informed decisions regarding his or her care. The patient’s rights include being informed of his or her health status, being involved in care planning and treatment, and being able to request or refuse treatment.Dec 2, 2011
The Patient Self-Determination Act. A matter of life and death.
Physician Assist. 1995 Mar;19(3):49, 53-6, 59-60 passim.
The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) is a federal law, and compliance is mandatory. It is the purpose of this act to ensure that a patient’s right to self-determination in health care decisions be communicated and protected. Through advance directives–the living will and the durable power of attorney–the right to accept or reject medical or surgical treatment is available to adults while competent, so that in the event that such adults become incompetent to make decisions, they would more easily continue to control decisions affecting their health care. Without advance directives and the proper adherence to such directives, former President Richard Nixon and former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis might still be alive today, in persistent vegetative states. This article examines the history of the act, its importance to each individual, the clinical, ethical and legal issues, and the role of health care professionals in effectively implementing and ensuring compliance of the PSDA.
Neurodiversity, Quality of Life, and Autistic Adults: Shifting Research and Professional Focuses onto Real-Life Challenges
This article examines challenges to the quality of life experienced by autistic adults.1 The author, who is an autistic researcher, first shares how a neurodiversity perspective offers an important alternative to the deficit model of autism. Whereas the deficit model portrays autistic people as ill, broken, and in need of fixing, the neurodiversity perspective portrays it as a form of human diversity with associated strengths and difficulties. The article’s discussion then shifts to presenting Schalock’s (2000) quality of life framework as a neurodiversity-compatible lens through which domains of quality of life can be viewed. The article analyzes in detail these core domains in relation to the lives of autistic adults. The author suggests that a collaborative approach between professionals/researchers and autistic adults is needed to develop meaningful solutions to these challenges, and he presents possibilities for collaboration.
Recommended Autistic Voices making a thought-provoking and informative impact: a list compiled by Kieran Rose, SLP Neurodiversity Collective Executive Board Member, Managing Director of Infinite Autism and Chair of The Autistic Cooperative:
“The following is an inexhaustive list of Positive of practical Blogs by Autistic people aimed at both parents of Autistic children and newly diagnosed Autistic Adults that will offer insight and understanding to various aspects of being Autistic and also help frame Autism in a way that encourages acceptance from self and others.” – Kieran Rose
Specific Blog posts
Examples of positive support sites that showcase Autistic voices
Some books positive and proactive books written by pro-Neurodiverse positive people
Gender Identity, Sexuality and Autism: Voices from Across the Spectrum, Eva Mendes
Inclusive Education for Autistic Children: Helping Children and Young People to Learn and Flourish in the Classroom, Dr. Rebecca Wood
Book by Steve Silberman:
“Steve Silberman is an award-winning science writer whose articles have appeared in Wired, the New York Times, the New Yorker, the Financial Times, the Boston Globe, the MIT Technology Review, Nature, Salon, Shambhala Sun, and many other publications. He is the author of NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity (Avery 2015), which Oliver Sacks called a “sweeping and penetrating history…presented with a rare sympathy and sensitivity.” The book became a widely-praised bestseller in the United States and the United Kingdom, and won the 2015 Samuel Johnson prize for non-fiction, a California Book Award, and a Books for a Better Life award. It was chosen as one of the Best Books of 2015 by The New York Times, The Economist, The Financial Times, The Boston Globe, The Independent, and many other publications, and is being translated into 15 languages.”
Book by Barry M. Prizant, Ph.D., CCC-SLP: “Uniquely Human Approach”
Barry has more than 40 years experience as a clinical scholar, consultant, researcher and program consultant to children and older persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and related developmental disabilities and their families. He is a licensed Speech-Language Pathologist and holds the Certificate of Clinical Competence (CCC-SLP) of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Barry has Photo Prizant served as a tenured Professor of Communication Disorders at Southern Illinois University and Emerson College, Boston, where he developed specialty tracks in language disabilities and autism in the Master’s and Doctoral programs. He also was Founder and Director of the Communication Disorders Department at Bradley Hospital, with an Associate Professor Appointment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Brown University Program in Medicine, and was an Advanced Post-Doctoral Fellow in Early Intervention at UNC-Chapel Hill. Barry has developed family-centered programs for newly diagnosed toddlers with social-communication disabilities and ASD and their families in hospital and university clinic settings, and consults widely to schools and agencies in New England as well and nationally and internationally, from early intervention through high school settings.”
Books by Katja Rowell MD and Jenny McGlothlin, M.S., CCC-SLP:
Katja Rowell MD is a family doctor and childhood feeding specialist. Described as “academic, but warm and down to earth,” she is a popular speaker and writer.
Jenny McGlothlin, M.S, CCC-SLP is the SLP Neurodiversity Collective Therapy Board Chair for Swallowing and Responsive Feeding. She developed the STEPS feeding program at the UT Dallas Callier Center to support and promote feeding development in children,and provides training for graduate students, therapists, teachers, and parents. More information may be found at Extreme Picky Eating Help.
Books by Mona Delahooke, PhD:
“Mona Delahooke, PhD is a licensed clinical psychologist with more than 30 years of experience caring for children and their families. She is a senior faculty member of the Profectum Foundation, an organization dedicated to supporting families of neurodiverse children, adolescents and adults. She is a trainer for the Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health. Dr. Delahooke is a member of the American Psychological Association and holds the highest level of endorsement in the field of infant and toddler mental health in California, as a Reflective Practice Mentor (RPM). She is a frequent speaker, trainer, and consultant to parents, organizations, schools, and public agencies. Dr. Delahooke has dedicated her career to promoting compassionate, relationship-based, neurodevelopmental interventions for children with developmental, behavioral, emotional, and learning differences.”
Books by Ross W. Greene, PhD: “Kids do well if they can.”
Amazon: “Ross W. Green, PhD., is the originator of the empirically supported model of psychosocial treatment described in his influential books The Explosive Child, Lost at School, Lost & Found, and Raising Human Beings. Dr. Greene was on the faculty at Harvard Medical School for over 20 years, and is the founding director of the non-profit Lives in the Balance (livesinthebalance.org), which provides vast free resources on his CPS model and advocates on behalf of behaviorally challenging kids and their caregivers. He is on the faculty of the Department of Psychology at Virginia Tech and the University of Technology in Sydney, Australia. He and his colleagues at Lives in the Balance consult to families, schools, inpatient psychiatry units, and residential and juvenile detention facilities throughout the world.”
Books by Julia Bascom:
Julia Bascom serves as Executive Director at the Autistic Self Advocacy Network and is an SLP Neurodiversity Collective Board Member. Julia is an autistic writer and activist who has served on the New Hampshire DD council, and is the founder of the Loud Hands Project. She writes about autistic identity, community, and language; disability rights; theory vs. praxis; and autism acceptance on her website, Just Stimming….
Therapist Neurodiversity Collective is a collective that believes that our therapy practices must contribute to a world in which autistic and other neurodivergent people equitable equal access, rights, and opportunities. We advocate neurodiversity, self-determination, dignity, respect of individual rights, sensory preferences, and the power to say “no”. Every member pledges to provide culturally competent, trauma-sensitive, empathetic care.
We believe that it is critical for us to really listen to autistic and other neurodivergent people, to be mentored, and to conduct our therapy practices accordingly. In no particular order, these are some of the neurodivergent educators, advocates, and activists, we follow on Facebook:
ABA AND PATIENTS’ RIGHTS:
Protect your loved ones and yourself from being subjected to the abuses of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) in the medical, rehab or skilled nursing setting:
Know the clinical background of anyone who is working with your loved one. SLPs and other clinical staff who use ABA models, and BCBAs and ABA Techs work in
- Acute care hospitals
- Inpatient rehabilitation facilities and private care clinics
- Traumatic Brain Injury clinics and facilities
- Skilled Nursing Facilities
ABA is used to control and manipulate the behavior of patients with Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-stroke, Dementia, Alzheimer’s, Age-Related Depression, Anxiety and Challenging Behaviors.
The push for the use of ABA in medical settings is a strategic business model, financially incentivized by the ABA industry at the expense of human dignity and patient rights.
Expanding the Consumer Base for Behavior-Analytic Services: Meeting the Needs of Consumers in the 21st Century
Leblanc, Linda A et al. “Expanding the consumer base for behavior-analytic services: meeting the needs of consumers in the 21st century.” Behavior analysis in practice vol. 5,1 (2012): 4-14. doi:10.1007/BF03391813
What you can do: Create a medical power of attorney and discuss your wishes with anyone who will be making medical decisions for you for how you wish to be treated if you should have a stroke, a TBI or be impacted with any cognitive injury. Address your wishes for swallowing and feeding therapy. Address your rights to refuse to participate in therapy which is disrespectful, manipulative or controlling. Put in your medical power of attorney whether or not you agree to be subjected to punishments and aversion therapy, including the withholding of foods, drinks, activities, and personal items in order to manipulate your behavior. The maximization of respect for patient autonomy and bodily integrity, rather than the imposition of the therapist’s professional values, is what the application of “informed consent” should endeavor to achieve.
Keep in mind that BCBAs and Behavior Techs pledge to treat all patients “consistent with the philosophical assumptions and principles of behavior analysis.” (Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts)
For more information: https://therapistndc.org/therapy/acquired-neurological-conditions/
Research studies and articles we find interesting, and/or which influence us to adapt, or change our practices altogether are posted here in no particular order. We add content frequently.
The Emerging Neuroscience of Intrinsic Motivation: A New Frontier in Self-Determination Research
“The use of neuroscience methods is an important new frontier for intrinsic motivation research for at least three interrelated reasons. First, to state the obvious, experience and behavior are mediated by the brain and a complete account of intrinsic motivation therefore requires an understanding of the neural systems that support it. Second, neuroscience affords the examination of internal processes that are not accessible by self-reports of experience or behavioral observations. A neuroscience of intrinsic motivation therefore promises new insights that introspective and behavioral methods alone cannot afford. Finally, neuroscience methods can be used to investigate motivational processes at a higher level of resolution than experiential and behavioral methods.”
Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services: Understanding the Impact of Trauma
“Initial reactions to trauma can include exhaustion, confusion, sadness, anxiety, agitation, numbness, dissociation, confusion, physical arousal, and blunted affect. Most responses are normal in that they affect most survivors and are socially acceptable, psychologically effective, and self-limited. Indicators of more severe responses include continuous distress without periods of relative calm or rest, severe dissociation symptoms, and intense intrusive recollections that continue despite a return to safety. Delayed responses to trauma can include persistent fatigue, sleep disorders, nightmares, fear of recurrence, anxiety focused on flashbacks, depression, and avoidance of emotions, sensations, or activities that are associated with the trauma, even remotely.”
Understanding, attitudes and dehumanisation towards autistic people
“Research suggests that while individuals may self-report positive attitudes towards autism, dehumanising attitudes (seeing another as less than human) may still prevail. This study investigated knowledge, openness and dehumanising attitudes of non-autistic people towards autistic people. A total of 361 participants completed a survey measuring autism openness, knowledge and experience, along with a measure of dehumanisation. Results showed that knowledge of autism was comparable to past research and females were more open towards autism. Findings also indicated evidence for dehumanisation, with a particular denial of ‘human uniqueness’ traits. Furthermore, dehumanisation was related to openness towards autism. These findings have implications for targeting attitudes to reduce stigma associated with autism.”
Treating self-injurious behaviors in autism spectrum disorder
“Currently, the most popular “go-to” assessment for SIBs in the autistic population is a Functional Behavioral Assessment or Analysis (FBA). An FBA is intended to develop and then test various hypotheses in order to eventually determine the “function” of a behavior, in this case self-injurious behaviors (Maurice, Green, & Luce, 1996). A Functional Behavior Assessment or Analysis is a method that is widely used in Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) therapy and is typically conducted by a Board Certified Behavioral Analyst (BCBA), in order to assume the function of a behavior… It is unclear why one would assume such an assessment/analysis would also be appropriate to assess the thoughts, feelings, and other internal processes that often determine the function of self-injurious behaviors (especially since we know this is the case for SIBs in the non-autistic population). Instead of approaching these SIBs and understanding them the way we understand SIBs in other populations, we have misapplied an FBA in an attempt to measure SIBs despite the fact that it cannot measure such a construct. This makes the assessment unscientific and methodologically flawed. Consequently, the misapplied FBA has sometimes obtained the same information and observation as the previously mentioned research (communication difficulties correlated with SIB), but the conclusions for the functions of SIB reached are varied, inconsistent, and without any scientific basis. Therefore, any treatment recommendations that are derived from an FBA should be considered unreliable since the assessment method in it of itself is unscientific, as it attempts to measure an unobservable construct, which is outside of the sphere of behaviorism and should only be performed by someone trained in psychology.”
Annual Report on Autism Care Demonstration Program for FY 2020
June 25, 2020: Report to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives
(Warning – Ableist Language)
DISCUSSION OF THE EVIDENCE REGARDING CLINICAL IMPROVEMENT OF CHILDREN DIAGNOSED WITH ASD
While there is some limited research suggesting early behavioral and developmental interventions (based on the principles of ABA services delivered in intensive and comprehensive programs) can significantly affect the development of some children diagnosed with ASD, not all children diagnosed with ASD receiving ABA services show improvements. Two well-respected medical literature review services, external to DHA, continue to find the evidence for ABA services (Intensive Behavior Intervention) for the diagnosis of ASD is weak, noting, “An overall low-quality body of evidence mainly from poor-quality studies suggests that Intensive Behavior Intervention (IBI) improves intelligence or cognitive skills, visual-spatial skills, language skills, and adaptive behavior compared with baseline levels or other treatments. Six years after this agency’s extensive June 2013 ABA coverage review, the published reliable evidence does not reflect any consensus as to whether the reported improvements are clinically significant; very few studies reported on the clinical significance of findings. A paucity of evidence regarding the durability of treatment following treatment cessation, as well as uncertainty regarding optimal therapy parameters, preclude firm conclusions regarding the efficacy of IBI for ASD” (Hayes 2019) 6. Cochrane (2018) 7 noted, “The strength of the evidence in this review is limited because it mostly comes from small studies that are not of the optimum design. Due to the inclusion of nonrandomized studies, there is a high risk of bias and we rated the overall quality of evidence as ’low’ or ’very low’ using the GRADE system, meaning further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate.”
“The research literature available regarding ABA services predominantly consists of single-case design studies which does not meet criteria for “reliable evidence” under TRICARE standards. There are still methodological concerns limiting the strength of the research such as identified characteristics of children (including symptom severity), rendering providers, and types of treatment for positive outcomes. These limitations include: “dose-response” (frequency, intensity, and duration), treatment fidelity, few studies which use a control group, few longitudinal studies which demonstrate long-term effectiveness, and no replication of similar in well-designed studies.”
2019 Department of Defense – “ABA”:
On October 25, 2019, the Department of Defense reported to Congress regarding TRICARE, and the effectiveness of ABA treatment for Autism. Based on data outcome measures, 76% of those receiving ABA treatment had no change in symptoms, and 9% WORSENED by more than a full standard deviation. This data reaffirms the November 2018 assertion by Navy Captain Edward Simmer, Chief Clinical Officer of the Tricare Health Plan, that the effectiveness of applied behavioral analysis for autism remains unproven.
Project AIM: Autism Intervention Meta-Analysis for Studies of Young Children
We found that when study quality indicators were not taken into account, significant positive effects were found for behavioral, developmental, and NDBI intervention types. When effect size estimation was limited to studies with randomized controlled trial (RCT) designs, evidence of positive summary effects existed only for developmental and NDBI intervention types. This was also the case when outcomes measured by parent report were excluded. Finally, when effect estimation was limited to RCT designs and to outcomes for which there was no risk of detection bias, no intervention types showed significant effects on any outcome.
Sandbank, Micheal & Bottema-Beutel, Kristen & Crowley, Shannon & Cassidy, Margaret & Dunham, Kacie & Feldman, Jacob & Crank, Jenna & Albarran, Susanne & Raj, Sweeya & Mahbub, Prachy & Sandbank, Citation & Crowley, K & Cassidy, S & Dunham, M & Feldman, K & Albarran, J & Raj, S & Woynaroski, Tiffany. (2019). Project AIM: Autism Intervention Meta-Analysis for Studies of Young Children. Psychological Bulletin. 146. 10.1037/bul0000215.
Ethical Concerns with Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism Spectrum “Disorder”
Specifically, we will argue that employing ABA violates the principles of justice and nonmaleficence and, most critically, infringes on the autonomy of children and (when pushed aggressively) of parents as well.
Wilkenfeld DA, McCarthy AM. Ethical Concerns with Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism Spectrum “Disorder”. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2020;30(1):31-69. doi:10.1353/ken.2020.0000
Evidence of increased PTSD symptoms in autistics exposed to applied behavior analysis
Kupferstein, H. (2018), “Evidence of increased PTSD symptoms in autistics exposed to applied behavior analysis”, Advances in Autism, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1108/AIA-08-2017-0016
How much compliance is too much compliance: Is long-term ABA therapy abuse?
Aileen Herlinda Sandoval-Norton & Gary Shkedy | Jacqueline Ann Rushby (Reviewing editor) (2019) How much compliance is too much compliance: Is long-term ABA therapy abuse?, Journal Cogent Psychology Volume 6, 2019 – Issue 1. 6:1, DOI: 10.1080/23311908.2019.164125818 Jul 2019.
Kupferstein, H. (2019) Why caregivers discontinue applied behavior analysis (ABA) and choose communication-based autism interventions. Advances in Autism. doi: 10.1108/AIA-02-2019-0004
Treating self-injurious behaviors in autism spectrum disorder
“Self-injurious behavior is a cry for help.”
“ABA therapists use an FBA to look at both the antecedent and the consequence of SIBs in order to hypothesize the function of SIBs. It is unclear why one would assume such an assessment/analysis would also be appropriate to assess the thoughts, feelings, and other internal processes that often determine the function of self-injurious behaviors (especially since we know this is the case for SIBs in the non-autistic population). Instead of approaching these SIBs and understanding them the way we understand SIBs in other populations, we have misapplied an FBA in an attempt to measure SIBs despite the fact that it cannot measure such a construct. This makes the assessment unscientific and methodologically flawed.”
Gary Shkedy, Dalia Shkedy & Aileen H. Sandoval-Norton | Luca Cerniglia (Reviewing editor) (2019) 01 Nov 2019. Journal Cogent Psychology Volume 6, 2019 – Issue 1. 6:1, DOI: 10.1080/23311908.2019.1682766
Training by repetition actually prevents learning for those with autism
Carnegie Mellon University. “Training by repetition actually prevents learning for those with autism.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 October 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151005121422.htm>.
A Conceptual Analysis of Autistic Masking: Understanding the Narrative of Stigma and the Illusion of Choice
Pearson, A., Dr, & Rose, K. (2020, July 15). A Conceptual Analysis of Autistic Masking: Understanding the Narrative of Stigma and the Illusion of Choice. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/6rwa5
The Art of Stimming: ABA Has Left a Legacy of Traumatized Kids
Compensatory strategies below the behavioural surface in autism: a qualitative study The Lancet Psychiatry – VOLUME 6, ISSUE 9, P766-777, SEPTEMBER 01, 2019.
Good social skills despite poor theory of mind: exploring compensation in autism spectrum disorder The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry – 26 March 2018.
“Putting on My Best Normal”: Social Camouflaging in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. August 2017, Volume 47, Issue 8, pp 2519–2534
Conceptualising compensation in neurodevelopmental disorders: Reflections from autism spectrum disorder. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. Volume 80, September 2017, Pages 729-742
Social camouflaging in autism: Is it time to lose the mask? (2019). Autism, 23(8), 1879–1881.
Latest Research Findings – STAR Institute
“This information is updated as scientists in the SPD Scientific Work Group inform the STAR Institute about their new findings. The SPD Scientific Work Group, initially founded in 2002, is a collaboration of researchers who have been conducting studies to further the understanding of SPD. Funded by the Wallace Research Foundation, these researchers have helped develop a blueprint for current and future research into SPD.”
The Importance of Sensory Processing in Mental Health: A Proposed Addition to the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) and Suggestions for RDoC 2.0
“We identify two missing classes of sensory symptoms that we widely define as (1) sensory processing, including sensory sensitivity and active sensing, and (2) domains of perceptual signaling, including interoception and proprioception, which are currently absent or underdeveloped in the perception construct of the cognitive systems domain.”
New research reveals that some autistic children (and even autistic adults) cannot learn to self-regulate when overwhelmed with sensory input, and instead, should be supported with both reduced exposure, and with provided supports such as noise canceling headphones to avoid the sensory overload altogether, rather than physically having to tolerate the sensory exposure. (July 29, 2019) “The findings suggest that these autistic children would not benefit from ‘exposure therapy,’ in which a therapist gradually exposes a person to increasing levels of a troublesome stimulus.”
White Matter Microstructure is Associated with Auditory and Tactile Processing in Children with and without Sensory Processing Disorder
Chang, Y.S., Gratiot, M., Owen, J., Brandes-Aitken, A., Desai, S., Hill, S., Arnett, A., Harris, J., Marco, E., & Mukherjee, P. (2016). White Matter Microstructure is Associated with Auditory and Tactile Processing in Children with and without Sensory Processing Disorder Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 9, 169.
Why do those with autism avoid eye contact? Imaging studies reveal overactivation of subcortical brain structures in response to direct gaze
Anguera JA, Brandes-Aitken AN, Antovich AD, Rolle CE, Desai SS, Marco EJ. A pilot study to determine the feasibility of enhancing cognitive abilities in children with sensory processing dysfunction. PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0172616. Published 2017 Apr 5. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172616
Abnormal white matter microstructure in children with sensory processing disorders
Julia P. Owen, Elysa J. Marco, Shivani Desai, Emily Fourie, Julia Harris, Susanna S. Hill, Anne B. Arnett, & Pratik Mukherjee (2013). Abnormal white matter microstructure in children with sensory processing disordersNeuroImage: Clinical, 2, 844 – 853.
Understanding Sensory Processing Disorder – STAR Institute
“Sensory Processing Disorder or SPD (originally called Sensory Integration Dysfunction) is a neurological disorder in which the sensory information that the individual perceives results in abnormal responses.”
Why do those with autism avoid eye contact? Imaging studies reveal overactivation of subcortical brain structures in response to direct gaze
Massachusetts General Hospital. “Why do those with autism avoid eye contact? Imaging studies reveal overactivation of subcortical brain structures in response to direct gaze.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 June 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170615213252.htm>.
Look me in the eyes: constraining gaze in the eye-region provokes abnormally high subcortical activation in autism
Hadjikhani, N., Åsberg Johnels, J., Zürcher, N.R. et al. Look me in the eyes: constraining gaze in the eye-region provokes abnormally high subcortical activation in autism. Sci Rep 7, 3163 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-03378-5
Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism
Kim M Dalton, Brendon M Nacewicz, Tom Johnstone, Hillary S Schaefer, Morton Ann Gernsbacher, H H Goldsmith, Andrew L Alexander, Richard J Davidson. Nat Neurosci. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 Feb 23. Published in final edited form as: Nat Neurosci. 2005 Apr; 8(4): 519–526. Published online 2005 Mar 6. doi: 10.1038/nn1421 PMCID: PMC4337787
Unconscious avoidance of eye contact in autism spectrum disorder
Madipakkam AR, Rothkirch M, Dziobek I, Sterzer P. Unconscious avoidance of eye contact in autism spectrum disorder. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):13378. Published 2017 Oct 17. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-13945-5
Proprioceptive Processing Difficulties Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities
Blanche EI, Reinoso G, Chang MC, Bodison S. Proprioceptive processing difficulties among children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities. Am J Occup Ther. 2012;66(5):621–624. doi:10.5014/ajot.2012.004234
The impact of atypical sensory processing on social impairments in autism spectrum disorder
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 29, January 2018, Pages 151-167
Abnormal Pressure Pain, Touch Sensitivity, Proprioception, and Manual Dexterity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Neuroplastic Mechanisms Underlying Perceptual and Cognitive Enhancement: Volume 2016
The Intense World Theory – a unifying theory of the neurobiology of autism
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 21 December 2010
Interoception is Impaired in Children, But Not Adults, with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Nicholson T, Williams D, Carpenter K, Kallitsounaki A. Interoception is Impaired in Children, But Not Adults, with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019;49(9):3625–3637. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-04079-w
The link between interoceptive processing and anxiety in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: Extending adult findings into a developmental sample
E.R. Palser, A. Fotopoulou, E. Pellicano, & J.M. Kilner (2018). The link between interoceptive processing and anxiety in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: Extending adult findings into a developmental sampleBiological Psychology, 136, 13 – 21.
Body Influences on Social Cognition Through Interoception
Gao, Q., Ping, X., & Chen, W. (2019). Body Influences on Social Cognition Through InteroceptionFrontiers in Psychology, 10, 2066.
Interoception in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A review
DuBois D, Ameis SH, Lai MC, Casanova MF, Desarkar P. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2016 Aug;52:104-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2016.05.001. Epub 2016 Jun 3. Review. PMID: 27269967
Autism spectrum disorder and interoception: Abnormalities in global integration?
Hatfield, T. R., Brown, R. F., Giummarra, M. J., & Lenggenhager, B. (2019). Autism spectrum disorder and interoception: Abnormalities in global integration? Autism, 23(1), 212–222.
Mothers’ interoceptive knowledge predicts children’s emotion regulation and social skills in middle childhood
MacCormack, JK, Castro, VL, Halberstadt, AG, Rogers, ML. Mothers’ interoceptive knowledge predicts children’s emotion regulation and social skills in middle childhood. Social Development. 2019; 00: 1– 22. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12418
“Results indicated that mothers’ interoceptive knowledge about their own emotions was associated with children’s social affective skills (emotion regulation, social initiative, cooperation, self‐control), even after controlling for child gender and ethnicity, family income, maternal stress, and the above maternal socialization factors. Overall, findings suggest that mothers’ interoceptive knowledge may provide an additional, unique pathway by which children acquire social affective competence.”
Autistic children at risk of being underestimated: school-based pilot study of a strength-informed assessment
Courchesne V, Meilleur AA, Poulin-Lord MP, Dawson M, Soulières I. Autistic children at risk of being underestimated: school-based pilot study of a strength-informed assessment. Mol Autism. 2015;6:12. Published 2015 Mar 6. doi:10.1186/s13229-015-0006-3
Should we change targets and methods of early intervention in autism, in favor of a strengths-based education?
Mottron, L. (2017). Should we change targets and methods of early intervention in autism, in favor of a strengths-based education?European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(7), 815–825.
Autistic children at risk of being underestimated: school-based pilot study of a strength-informed assessment
Courchesne, V., Meilleur, A.S., Poulin-Lord, M. et al. Autistic children at risk of being underestimated: school-based pilot study of a strength-informed assessment. Molecular Autism 6, 12 (2015) doi:10.1186/s13229-015-0006-3